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affective filter

A concept from Stephen Krashen's theory of second language acquisition, which basically says that some people are more timid about making a fool of themselves than others.

after action review

The After Action Review (or AAR) is a structured discussion tool for talking about an event, to discover what happened, why it happened, and to figure out how how to sustain strengths and improve on weaknesses. It was invented by the US Army and is in use by organizations ranging from firefighters to USAID.


We tend to refer to anarchy in the sense of "productive anarchy" (see Niels C. Taubert, "Produktive Anarchie?: Netzwerke freier Softwareentwicklung"), which is related to the anarcho-libertarian philosophy of agorism.


A theory of adult education that was a major part of Malcolm Knowles life work. The principles of andragogy were by 90 degrees to generate the principles of paragogy.


A Japanese term for "place" used in a philosophical sense by twentieth-century philosopher Kitaro Nishida. It was part of the inspiration for the "SECI model" of knowledge creation developed by Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi.


When we refer to a "changing context", we are typically thinking in terms of "basho" (which see).


Computer-supported collaborative learning.


Computer-supported collaborative work.

learner profiles

For example: (note that it is good practice to put both things you want to learn, and things you can help others learn, into your profile to make it more "paragogical").

learning analytics

See for some further information.


“I never teach my pupils; I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn.” -Albert Einstein

organizational learning

See for some details.


The theory and practice of peer learning (otherwise known as peer-to-peer learning or peer-produced education). By coincidence, it also means "production" in Greek, and to our way of thinking, peer learning and production are indeed intrinsically linked.


The theory and practice of teaching children.


Howard Rheingold's inflection of the word "paragogy", designed to be immediately comprehensible -- peeragogy is about peers learning together. The word "peeragogy" does not capture the same double meaning as "paragogy" -- however, it has been an effective rallying point for people in the Peeragogy Project, which produced and maintains "The Peeragogy Handbook: a resource for self-organizing self-learners" (online, with a 1st print edition published January 1, 2013).

peer learning

Quite simply, learning that happens in a peer group of whatever sort.

peer production

Derived from Yochai Benkler's theory of "commons-based peer production". Caveat: not all peer production is "commons-based", although this gets into some tricky issues about resource management!


Provisionist thinking about education says that if "we" provide a better system for "them", "they" will learn better and get more out of it. By contrast, paragogy applies in situations where the we/them dichotomy breaks down. (The term comes from Boud and Lee, see recommended readings on main page of


P2PU is an an online learning space for peers. The people involved also meet in person from time to time! P2PU workshops have made use of methods developed by Allen Gunn, see


A Sri Lankan movement involved in development efforts, see -- the term was coined by Mahatma Gandhi and translates as 'progress of all'.


An ancient greek philosopher, who is best known for insisting that he was not wise, and asking questions to everybody.


From Cal Newport's Study Hacks site: a "Stretch Project [is] project that requires a skill you don’t have at the outset [and] stretch churn [is] the number of stretch projects you complete per unit of time." (Cf. learning analytics.)


"Simply put a transversal is a line that cuts across other lines, perhaps across entire fields - bringing the fields together in a new way, recreating fields as something else." (Andrew Murphie, in Fibreculture Journal.) The concept comes from late 20th century French philosopher/activist Félix Guattari. There are some parallels in the concept of "residual categories", see "Enacting silence: Residual categories as a challenge for ethics, information systems, and communication" by Star and Bowker.